Nsukka community is the headquarter of Enugu-North sentorial zone. it includes all other communities that make up the old division now known as Nsukka zone. These are Enugu-Ezike, Aku, Ozalla, OpiLeja, Obukpa, Okpuje, Ibagwa-ani, Alor-Uno, Ibagwa-aka, Ede-Oballa, Edem, Ukehe, Obollo-afor, Obollo-Eke, Ikem, Ekwegbe, Ohodo, Uvuru, Nkpologu, Abbi, Adani, Ukpabi, Nimbo Ugbelle ajima, Nrobu. Ovoko, Orba, Imilike, Ihe-aka, Obimo,Obollo-etiti, Ogbodo-Aba, Mbu, Neke, Umuruokpa, lga, etc. However most people from these communities refer to Nsukka as their home.
The old Nsukka division is now made up of six local Government Areas. They are Nsukka with Nsukka town as headquarters, Igbo-Etiti with Ogbede as headquarters. igbo Eze North has Ogrute as headquarter while igbo Eze South has lbagwa-Aka as headquarter. Uzo-Uwani has Umulokpa as heaiquarteis. Obollo-Afor is the headquarters of Udenu And Isi-Izo has Ikem as its headquarters.
The total areas of Nsukka zone is about 3961 square kilometers and is inhabited by a people whose population according to 1963 census was 689, 353. The 1976 population estimate was 984, 707. The population of Nsukka as shown by 1991 national census which is yet to be officially released is quite higher than the 1976 estimate. The most densely populated part of Nsukka areas is Enugu-Ezike, which has been described as the most densely populated rural village group in West African of 61,000 in 1953 had an average density of more than 800 persons per square mile. Other densely populated area are Aku and Ukehe in lgbo-Etiti Local Government Area, and Opi in Nsukka Local government Area. The most squarel populated are Uzo-Uwani and Isi-Uzo Local government Area.
Geographically, Nsukka is in Northern Igboland, it is at present in Enugu State of Nigeria. Nsukka is well located geographically. In fact, it appears to be one of the well located in Nigeria Nsukka lies between latitude 6°, 18′ and 70.00, North and longitude 6°, 52 and 70, 541 east. The place is the culture contact zone between the North and the south. This geographical proximity with Idioma and the Igalla groups in the North enhances intercourse in various fields of life which subsequently affected history of Nsukka on one hand and the Idioma and the Igalla on the other hand. Nsukka shares boundaries with Idioma of the presentBenue state in the North-east and Igalla of the present Kogi state in the North and north-west. It is bounded on the east by Ishielu in Abakiliki zone now Ebonyi State and Nike in Enugu zone. It shares boundaries with Udi in the South and Ifite Awgwali in area of Anambra State. Nsukka Road new double lane
It has a very good climate that is neither too hot nor too cold. The climate is the type which any person will like to live in. Nsukka lies between the savannah vegetation and the rainforest belt of the South. The area is more than savannah, but because of long period of human occupation and cultivation in the area, the place has almost lost its rain forest features. The complex of tress and grasses which make up the zone, according to U. M. Igbozurike has led the region being termed as the forest-savannah mosaic.
There are in addition places where bamboo trees predominate particularly places such as egbelle, Okpuje, and part of Agu-Opi. These are also hydro-morphic region where Aquatic plants thrive, such places include Opi lake area, Amanye and Abonyi river basin in Eha-Ndiagu and Eha-Amufu respectively.
Nsukka area enjoys rain fall for a very long time ever years. Rainy season lasts for over seven months from the month of April to October. There are the western low lands, a plateau zone an escarpment zone and eastern low land. The area has a high central zone which according to Ofomata lies generally over 305 metres above the sea level with isolated peaks reading over 365 metres. The highest peak in Nsukka is 590 metres above sea level.
In the central and much of the western parts of Nsukka, surface drainage is very sparse. Only Adada crosses the Nsukka plateau near Nsukka town. The Eastern and western parts of the area are very well provided with surface drainage. Sinking of wells in Nsukka is possible because the water table is close to the surface.
The people of Nsukka were predominately farmers before the establishment of British rule. Most farmers engaged in peasant farming, however, the supplies were a times taken to market for sale in order to buy other commodities. They grew food crops like yams (Ji-Abala, Oku, Abi Una) Maize (azu-uzu) Beans (akidiala, na akidi-elu) Cassava (akpu) cocoyam (Okpakara na Ugwuta na Nlepashi). Cash crops like kola nuts, palm tress, oil bean tress, bread fruits, coconuts were grown.
The people of Nsukka area also rear animals like goats, sheep, fowls, dogs, cats, cows and horses, which were very important because of funeral ceremonies and sacrifice to thegods. They also engage in hunting: they kill animals like Lion (agu) bush pig (eshiagu) Pyton (eke). The young ones also hunt other small animals like rabbits, bush squirrels, rats, etc. Hunting was also performed during festivals as (Omabe) in Nsukka town. Hunting was also of great significance because it is part of training in case there was out break of war. Most good hunting were the heroes of different areas during warfare. In some other areas where there are rivers and lakes they engage in fishing. Such places are Adani, Ogrurugu, Opi agu, Eha-Ndiagu, Eha-Amufu.
The people of Nsukka are engaged in arts and crafts. They carved masks for masquerades. Other items include beds, stools, plates for preserve soup ingredients. The people also produce mats and baskets. The women are engaged in salt production at such places as Nrobi in Uzo-Uwani local government area, Eha-Ndiagu and Eha-Amufu. They also engage in weaving the cloth produced were used by adults and rich people for making chairs. The people also engaged in iron working with iron, they produced such articles as hoes, cutlass, spears and denguns. According to Ishiwu, the people also made pots. The archaeological excavation by D. D, Hatle of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) farm had pottery sherds which had been carbon-dated to 2555BC. And looked very much like the unfored clay vessels still found in Nsukka and other parts of Igboland.
These pots were produced in places like Nrobi in Uzo-Uwani local government area, Eha-Ndiagu, Eha-Amufu, Obollo, Eke, Ikenm. The geographical location of Nsukka aided its effective participation in the pre-colonial trade. The traders from Nsukka operated as middlemen between the lgala and the ldioma of the North and the other lgbo people in the South.
Slaves collected from Nsukka were sold to the Igala in the North And to nike traders who operated as agent for the Aro-slave dealers. Aro were tradiding with the people of
Igala and Nsukka in the 1950. The identified trade routes were Afar-Iwolo,Akaiyi, Adada, ukpata, uvuru, Ukpologu and then reached Nsukka and Ibagwa. The secon linked Arochukwu, Abakiliki and Eha-Amufu. other routes were Abo Eke-Egede, Amaozala, Nkpologu and Ogurugu routes. The important fact to note about trade in Nsukka is that the 19th century saw flourishing prosperous trade in the area and that traders wealth from it.
The traditional political systems of Nsukka is just like igbo political system.One of them is presidential Monarch. This is found among those Igbo communities which came into close contact with non-lgbo states like Benin and lgala and borrowing aspects of the political system of such states. Among the borrowings were aspects of regalia and ceremonies of kingship and royalties. According to lfemesia, this type is found in such places as Onitsha, Nri, Oguta, Ossimari and parts of Western lgbo. The second type is the village republic, which is commonest among the lgbo. Afigbo stated that in this type the distribution of authority, power, practice and process of government are the same as in the presidential Monarch. The differences is that this system is without little regalia and ceremonies of kingship and royalty.
Within Nsukka there and village republic. The first type is found among these communities which had contact with Igala aspects of their political institutions such as regalia, ceremonial kingship and royalties. These they attempted to integrate with their indigenous political system, but at Nsukka kings were mere presidents of council of elders of their political units and never became autocratic as was the case in the system they sought to imitate. This is found in Obimo, Ibagwa-Ani, Unadu,Alor, among others.
Village republics are found among communities which did not have the kingship system. This type is by far the commonest as could be found in Enugu-Ezike, ovoko, lhaaka to the North at Aku, Ozalla, Ukehe to the south, at Obollo and Imilike to the East and at Adani to the West, to mention but few. The Nsukka people see themselves as descendants of one founding father. Each unit is headed by the oldest known as Okpara In each family, there was the eldest man who was in charge of his family. He presided over their meeting and looked after their family god. Then each family sends a representative who is the oldest man to the village meeting man in the village and titled a man. Even if the person did not have titles may be because of poverty, nobody could replace him as the eldest man. These elders meet on crucial matters concerning the village. However, at times the meeting was open to every male that was up to 18 years of age and above, as everybody hadthe right to air his view on matters concerning the village. The eldest man and the titled men in the villages who came from different families represented the village in meeting concerning the whole town. They now come home to tell the people the which was presided over by the oldest outcome of the meeting.
In a nutshell there was no monarchical system in Nsukka before the white-men, even among those who tried the kingship aspects borrowed from outside Nsukka. It was the white people that introduced chieftency titles in Nsukka.